Last updated 1.20.05


There's lots of new stuff appearing on the web everyday, so this list is far from comprehensive.

Several categories are just a small sampling of that topic.

Some links may be broken due to old age and dot-com busts!


fresh stuff to check out:

A group blog called grandtextauto

Twisty Little Passages, by Nick Montfort
Chris Crawford on Interactive Storytelling, by Chris Crawford

essays & articles
Agitating for Dramatic Change, Randy Littlejohn, Gamasutra
Games, the Lively New Art, Henry Jenkins
Will Wright's
GDC03 slides on Dynamics for Designers (large download)
The Future of PC Gaming, Molyneux interview
Where Stories End and Games Begin, Greg Costikyan
The Road Not Taken -- The How's and Why's of Interactive Fiction, Jonas Smith

Games, Gamers & Gaming Culture
scratchware manifesto

web art and interactions

Robert Kendall's FAITH and CLUES
Weebl and Bob

Harold Cohen's

newly- or soon-to-be-published books, that I've contributed to:
First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game, eds. Noah Wardrip-
Fruin and Pat Harrigan, MIT Press
Narrative Intelligence, eds. M. Mateas and P. Sengers, John Benjamins Publishing
Emotions in Humans and Artifacts, eds. R. Trappl, P. Petta and S. Payr, MIT Press
Socially Intelligent Agents: Creating Relationships with Computers and Robots,
eds. K. Dautenhahn et al, Kluwer
Like-like Characters: Tools, Affective Functions and Applications, eds. H. Prendinger and M. Ishizuka, Springer


more books
Narrative as Virtual Reality
Marie-Laure Ryan, 2001

The Art of Interactive Design
(previously Understanding Interactivity),
Chris Crawford, 2003

Designing Sociable Robots,
Cynthia Breazeal, 2002

The New Media Reader, eds.
N. Wardrip-Fruin and N. Montfort

Pause & Effect: the art of interactive
, Mark Meadows, 2002

Digital Storytelling: Capturing Lives,
Creating Communities
, Joe Lambert, 2002

Digital Beauties, Taschen, 2002

commercial interactive art
and entertainment

Dawn Demo

There (PC)

Second Life(PC)

The Sims Online (PC)

Shenmue II (XBox)
Yu Suzuki (Sega)

Grand Theft Auto 3 (PC)
Rockstar Games (PC)


interactive story,
story generation,

narrative and games

First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game, eds. Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin, MIT Press
Narrative Intelligence book (2003), from AAAI Narrative Intelligence Symposium, Nov 1999 projects and papers, Michael Mateas and Andrew Stern
CMU Oz project theses and reports from Bates, Loyall, Reilly, et al
Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace, by Janet Murray   (also: 3D Hamlet?, When Story Lines Go Online, Digital Storytelling: Is it Art?, Paint)
Computers as Theatre, by Brenda Laurel (also: Severed Heads)
Cybertext by Espen Aarseth
Twisty Little Passages, by Nick Montfort, plus essays
Narrative as Virtual Reality, by Marie-Laure Ryan (also: Possible Worlds)
Chris Crawford's Understanding Interactivity, Interactivity and Computer Game Design essays, Erasmatron, Phrontisterion
Guiding Interactive Drama, Ph.D. thesis, Peter Weyhrauch, CMU 1997
Game Design as Narrative Architecture, Games The New Lively Art, Henry Jenkins, MIT
Upcoming book on Interactive Fiction Theory, eds. Short and Jerz
StorySpace (pdf), Cardshark & Thespis (pdf), Patterns of Hypertext, etc. by Mark Bernstein, et al.
Agitating for Dramatic Change, Randy Littlejohn
The Road Not Taken -- The How's and Why's of Interactive Fiction, Jonas Smith
Pause & Effect: the art of interactive
, Mark Meadows, 2002
Expressive AI, Terminal Time, An Oz-Centric Review, Michael Mateas, CMU
AI Beyond Computer Games, Andrew Stern,,, Games, Gaming and Gaming Culture, GamingPeople,, GameLab,
State of the Arts of Electronic Literature,
Labyrinth Interactive Frictions & Entertainment in the Interactive Age,, RE:PLAY99, Wiresight Digital Intercourse, Virtual Storytelling 2001, AAAI95, AISB99, ELO chat archives, IVA, ICVS
iDrama group and mailing list
Synthetic Characters, Silas T. Dog, Swamped!, Media Lab at MIT (also: Virtual Pets study by S. Turkle)
Improv Project at NYU
Interactive Fiction authoring systems: Inform by Graham Nelson, TADS by Mike Roberts, Hugo by Kent Tessman; Jerz's IF links; Skotos StoryBuilders
LAIC at Georgia Tech;
Chaim Gingold's story construction prototypes
ETC at CMU, including ALICE, DINAH
IDTension (Nicolas Szilas) in Paris
U. Teesside interactive storytelling
Interactive Entertainment at NWU
UMichigan AI and games group
Liquid Narrative at NCSU
Interactive Cinema, Narrative Guidance by Davenport, Galyean at MIT Media Lab
Brutus.1, "Chess Is Too Easy" by S. Bringsjord at RPI
Dramaton, Story vs. Game: The Battle for IF, by Doug Sharp
DEFACTO by N. Sgouros, Greece
Neo-drama, Yves Grolet
Animated IF, Piesk and Trogemann, Media Arts Cologne, Germany
AI in IF, C. Dimitrakakis
Story-morphing by Clark Elliot, DePaul
Virtual Humans (Lig) at EPFL, Switz.
ATR MI&C, Japan
Virtual Theater Project at Stanford
MINSTREL by Scott Turner
The Metanovel : Writing Stories by Computer by James Meehan
Computer Generated Writing links from Marius Waltz
And more: Drama Theory list, Pinhanez, Dramatec Immersive Soap, Jeff Green, Phil Goetz, Ultima Ratio, Story Representation and AI & Confabulating-arranger model essays by Jorn Barger, the interactive book by Celia Pearce, Virtual Drama Society,, Dr. K--- by Brandon Rickman, Generative Cinema, etc. etc. etc...
Minsky lecture on game AI
Clicking for Godot,
Digital Diner interviews, Center for Digital Storytelling
Interactive Entertainment, Hotwired
Games as Art?, Newsweek
George Lucas on the future of story
The New Storytellers, NewMedia
Pure Play, Village Voice
Art Form for the Digital Age
Craft of the Adventure, Graham Nelson
2nd-gen IF, Bringing Characters to Life, Plot Automation by David Graves
New Ways to be Nonlinear by M. Hippolyte
Foundations of Interactive Storytelling, ihobo via IGDA
Essays & Game Design: Theory & Practice by Richard Rouse
History of Computer Game Design
Story by Robert McKee
Understanding Comics, Reinventing Comics, by Scott McCloud
The Art of Dramatic Writing, by Lajos Egri
Machine Conversations, Y. Wilks, ed.
Disney's The Illusion of Life, by F. Thomas and O. Johnston
story knowledge systems & dialog technologies
Cyc from Doug Lenat
Thought Treasure by Erik Mueller
Amberoids by Bill DeSmedt
JAPE computer generated humor by Kim Binsted
WordNet & bibl., Link Grammar, Arthur, Dialog Engine, OpenMind Commonsense
hypertext fiction & theory,
electronic literature,
interactive fiction

(also see web art, lower right)

ELO, Alt-X EBR, Eastgate Systems, Rhizome, WordCircuits, Hyperizons, Hypertext Kitchen, Xyzzy, SPAG, ht_lit mailing list, Brass Lantern, Deena Larson
Michael Joyce, Stuart Moulthrop, Janet Murray, J. Yellowees Douglas, Mark Amerika
Writing Space, Degrees of Freedom, by Jay David Bolter
Hyper/Text/Theory, ed. by George Landow
Cybertext by Espen Aarseth
StorySpace (pdf), Cardshark & Thespis (pdf), Patterns of Hypertext, etc. by Mark Bernstein, et al.
Interactive Fiction ORR IF links, IF Links, more IF Links; IF authoring systems: Inform by Graham Nelson (design manual), TADS by Mike Roberts, Hugo by Kent Tessman; IF writing guide, Kevin Wilson
A few samples: Nick Montfort, The Unknown by Gillespie / Rettberg / Stratton, Lies by Rick Pryll, Six Sex Scenes by A. Eisen, Justin by Justin, Adam Cadre, Andrew Plotkin, Girl Birth Water Death by M. Conway, Digital Fiction, z360, C. Deemer, WAXWEB by David Blair, etc. etc. etc....
Poems that Go
Poles In Your Face, essay by J. Fauth
Tree Fiction, essay by Gareth Rees
I Have No Words & I Must Design by Greg Costikyan
Hypertext Fiction: A Literary Theory, essay by Sarah Auerbach
ai research as art by S. Wilson, AI and the Humanities, Stanford Electronic Humanities Review
ABCExperiment, ArtificialStage, DesktopTheater, Virtual Puppet Theatre
email + web stories
Online Caroline, David Still, Interfable
digital storytelling
Abbe Don & Bubbe, SFDMC, CDS, Digital Storytelling Festival, American Girls, Virtual Shakespeare, the fray, Home Page, Spiff, The Gate, Lumiere, Purple Moon, Living Books, Tired of Giving In
choose your own adventure
Multipath Movies, Cyberflix
virtual characters

(also see physical / robot characters below)

Babyz, Dogz, Catz & Oddballz from PF.Magic / Mindscape / Mattel
The Sims Online, The Sims from Maxis, Will Wright
The original Eliza, also here; and Julia
Colby's Parry, MAIW Computer-aided Psychotherapy
The Living Letters from Zoesis, Woggles from CMU OZ
Black and White from Lionhead
Creatures from Creature Labs, Steve Grand
"Creation: Life and How to Make It"
Synthetic Characters at MIT Media Lab: Silas T. Dog, Sheep|dog, Duncan, AlphaWolf
Gesture and Narrative at MIT Media Lab: Rea, BEAT, Gandalf
Responsive Animated Characters, Improv from NYU MRL
Alicebot from Alice AI Foundation
Baby Hal from Ai NV
Sylvie from Virtual Personalities
Seaman from Sega
Virtual Friend from Haptek
Virtual Fish Tank exhibit from Nearlife
A-Volve, Plants, etc. from C. Sommerer and L. Mignonneau
Head, et al from Ken Feingold
Little Computer People from Activision
AI.implant for Maya
Floops, Moxie, etc. from Protozoa
iDrama virtual interviews
Ananova newscaster
3dMe virtual messaging characters
Ingeeni virtual characters
Invisible Person, Austria Media / AI Lab
VirtuaGirl soft-core porn character
Virtual Albert Einstein at CMU ETC
Aquazone from Mindscape
MSAgent characters: BonziBuddy, Agentry, links,
Some tools: Motion Factory toolkit, RenderWare AI, Janet Murray's CharacterMaker, Improv Technologies
Links: Games & Virtual Pets
And more (some are now non-existent): FinFin, Habibi, Screenmates, Galapagos, Technosphere, Droidworks, ToggleThisInteractive Pet Dinosaur, CyberPest, K-9 Cyber Companion, Monster Rancher, Petfish, El Fish, American Girls, Darwin3D, VIM, TalkingMax, Gabby, Katrix toolkit
Amazing fan sites: Petz fan pages links, Babyz fan pages, more links, and more, customer reviews, Anso
physical toy, robot and android characters
MIT AI Lab and Robotic Life Group at MIT Media Lab: Cog, Kismet, Leonardo, Robot Faces
Interactive Animatronics Institute, ETC, CMU
Tamagotchi from Bandai (Other handheld digital pets: Pokemon for Gameboy, Gigapets, Nano Baby, Digipet for Pilot)
Furby from Tiger Electronics, FurReal
My Real Baby from Hasbro/iRobot
AIBO Robo-Dog from Sony, and the clones Poo-chi & iCybie
Cindy Smart from Manley Toy Quest
Interactive Barney from Microsoft
NeCoRo from Omron
Roboneko prototype from Genobyte
Android links at Android World
Talk to Me Barbie, Real Talkin' Bubba  from Mattel, Amazing Amy & Ally from Playmates
more virtual character papers and books
Creating Personalities for Synthetic Actors: Towards Autonomous Personality Agents, eds. Robert Trappl, Paola Petta, 1997
Designing Sociable Robots, MIT Press, C. Breazeal, 2002
Research paradigms for agents as synthetic characters, by Clark Elliot
Multiple Character Interaction Between Believable Characters by Andrew Stern
Essays by Steve Grand of Cyberlife, Creation: Life and How to Make It
The Art and Science of Synthetic Character Design by C. Kline & B. Blumberg, Blumberg's thesis
Emotional Computing book by M. Plutowski of Emotivate
virtual character links
autonomous characters list from Craig Reynolds
Virtual Pet Home Page
notable interactive story and storyworlds
Grand Theft Auto 3, Rockstar Games
The Sims Online, The Sims from Maxis, Will Wright
Shenmue I & II, Yu Suzuki, Sega Dreamcast
Project Ego from Peter Molyneux of Lionhead
The Last Express by Smoking Car Productions
Half-Life from Valve Software
Super Mario 64 by Nintendo
Ecstatica I and II by Andrew Spencer
Alone in the Dark by I-Motion
Ultima Online
Majestic from EA
artificial life
CyberBiology, The A-Life Games Homepage, Cyberlife,, Live Alife Page, Artificial Life Online, A-Volve, etc. D. Terzopoulos, Nerve Garden, Critters, Digital Biology, AL Links, Zooland, S. Dean, Database, LIFE 2.0
Chatterbot Links (Simon Laven), BotSpot, Julia and ELIZA, Bots Info, Neuromedia, Loebner Turing Test, Alicebot
virtual humans
VH Links, Lig and MIRALab, Haptek, Humana Virtualis, BDI, Anthrobotics, Real Doll, Baby Think It Over doll
emotion, social
EBAA'99, Tangled Knot AAAI, Affective Computing, Emotion Links, Social Links, Ian Wilson paper, Warren Sack, HumanML
interface agents
Persona from Microsoft, 3D Assistant, Extempo, IntelliMedia, Wildfire, Inago, BigScience Klones, Mindmaker, Kiwilogic, Oddcast, Verbal OS, BrainHat, ActiveBuddy SmarterChild, Zabaware
avatars & virtual worlds
VW Links (CCON), VW Events, Design Links, WorldsChat, Blaxxun, The Palace, OZ, Comic Chat, Alice, S. DiPaola, EscOnline
virtual reality
GREAT VR Links, VR News, Jaron Lanier, sci.v-w faq, VRML, Caipirinha, VR Systems, Diamond Park
game AI and design
Game Theory NYTimes column, Games AI Page, Gamasutra, GDC, Games Come of Age symposium, Game Developer, GameGrene, Technomagi, Generation 5, Game Programming, Art of Game Design, Game Theory, Amit, Programmer's Lair, CRAIG, CGW article, Russian, Gamebots, Game Design: Theory & Practice
agents & AI
AAAI links, UMBC Agent Web, AI Links, Firefly, Behavioral Animation, Evolutionary Computation, Affective Reasoning, Jack, Stanford, UChicago, MIT AI Lab, CMU AI, WebMind, Machines in the Myths
Android World links, Cog, Kismet, AIBO, Honda P-2, Simon Penny, Leg Lab, R. Brooks, NTC, Ricci
MUD faq, MUD Connector, eMu
newsgroups and zines .alife .ai,, sci.virtual-worlds, Salon, Suck, Alt-X, Alma
technology & culture
bolt, transcinema/blasthaus, GeekChic, M/C and m|c|t journals, PopCultures, Links to the Future
interactive art, electronic art, video art, web art,
net art
(a small sampling)
ZKM, ars electronica, LIFE 2.0, ISEA, Leonardo, LEA, Rhizome, Convergence, Great Links, S. Wilson, aaal-98, Interval, ATR, Anon Salon, AIAS, blasthaus, MARS GMD, Boston Cyberarts, WalkerArt, Cyberstage, Atlantic Unbound, CTheory, Switch, arts@large
Office Plant #1 by Böhlen & Mateas, Emergence UCLA, Feeping Creatures, Influencing Machine by P. Sengers, M. Flanagan [phage], P. Vanouse, S. Draves
just a small sampling of web art and interactions
Rhizome, ADM, Adam Frank, Shane Cooper, Noah Wardrip-Fruin, P. Vanouse, Warren Sack, JavaMuseum, Agneta & Frita, Bianca, fufme, Netomat, Cyborger, Alberta, Jon Haddock, AE Generator, etc. etc. etc....